Theoretical Biologists, Philosophers of Biology, Historians of Biology and scholars of Social Studies of Biology

This page provides information about internet resources (persons, institutes, groups and journals) on research into the nature of the biological sciences, their theoretical foundations, general theoretical biology, and related areas of research. Please help to make this site as useful as possible!

Persons             Organizations             Research groups and institutes

Journals                   Other resources


The list is not meant to be complete or to indicate that a web page is a criterion of existence, it is simply meant as a useful information tool within this area. You are welcome to suggest additions to this list.
The categories given for each person are tentative, just to give an idea about main focus of research interests in: Theoretical Biology (T); Philosophy of Biology (P), History of Biology (H), or Social Studies of Biology (S). In most cases there will be considerable overlaps between fields of study so please do not take them too seriously! The sign [&] indicate additional sites.

C. Athena Aktipis   (T, P, S)
Colin Allen   (P)
Rachel Ankeny   (H, P)
Henri Atlan   (T, P)
Francisco J. Ayala    (T, P)

Karl Ernst von Baer   (T, P)
Marcello Barbieri   (T, P)
Gregory Bateson   (T, P)
John Beatty   (H, P)
Mark A. Bedau   (T, P)
Marc Bekoff   (T)
Jacques Benveniste   (T)
Ludwig von Bertalanffy   (T)
John Bickle   (P, T)
Walter Bock   (T, P)
Giovanni Boniolo   (P)
Fred C. Boogerd  (T, P)
Michael Bradie   (P)
Johan Braeckman    (T, P)
Robert Brandon   (P)
Olaf Breidbach (H, P, T)
Søren Brier   (P)
David J. Buller   (P)
Richard Burian   (P, H)
Leo W. Buss   (T)

Werner Callebaut   (P, H) [&]
Peter Cariani   (T, P)
John Collier   (T, P)
Michael Conrad   (T)
Ron Cottam   (T)
Carl F. Craver   (P)
Francis Crick   (T)

Lindley Darden   (H, P)
Charles Darwin   (T) [&]
Richard Dawkins   (T)
Daniel C. Dennett   (P)
Michael R. Dietrich    (H, P)
Teoman Durali    (P)

Gerald Edelman   (T)
Charbel Niño El-Hani   (T, P)
Claus Emmeche   (T, P)
Robin Engelhardt   (T)
Marc Ereschefsky   (P)
Arantza Etxeberria   (T, P)

Heinz von Foerster   (T, P)

Sander Gliboff   (H)
Stephen Jay Gould  (H, P, T)
James R. Griesemer   (P)
Paul E. Griffiths   (T, P)
Purnananda Guptasarma   (T) [&]
Mathias Gutmann  (T, P)

William P. Hall   (T)
Robert M. Hamilton & R. B. Hamilton   (T)
William Donald Hamilton   (T)
Valerie Gray Hardcastle   (P, S)
Jesper Hoffmeyer   (T, P)
Mae-Wan Ho    (T, P) [ & ]
Jon Hodge   (H, P)
David Hull   (P, H) [ & ]

Sungchul Ji   (T, P)
Brian Josephson   (T, P)
Cliff Joslyn   (T, P)
Jürgen Jost (T)
John R. Jungck   (P, T)

Vyacheslav L. Kalmykov   (T)
George Kampis   (T, P)
Stuart A. Kauffman   (T)
James J. Kay   (T)
Brian L. Keeley   (P)
Jan T. Kim   (T)
David G. King   (T)
Gert Korthof   (T, P)
Kalevi Kull   (T, P)

Manfred Laubichler   (T, H)
Jay L. Lemke   (P)
James G. Lennox   (H, P)
Sabina Leonelli   (P, S)
Juan Carlos Letelier   (T)
Mike Levin   (T, P)
Richard Levins   (T)
Tim Lewens   (P)
Richard Lewontin   (T) [&]
Elisabeth Lloyd   (P, S)
Henrik Hautop Lund   (T)

Jane Maienschein   (H, P)
Lynn Margulis   (T)
Anton Markos   (T, P)
Koichiro Matsuno   (T, P)
Humberto Maturana   (T, P)
Donald McGraw   (H)
Barry McMullin   (T, P)
Daniel W. McShea   (T, P)
Donald C. Mikulecky   (T)
Ruth G. Millikan   (P)
Roberta L. Millstein   (P, H)
Eric Minch   (T, P)
Sandra D. Mitchell   (T, P)
Federico Morán   (T)
Hans P. Moravec   (T)
Alvaro Moreno   (P, T)
Gregory J. Morgan   (H, P)
Lenny Moss   (P)
Gerd B. Müller   (P)

Eva M. Neumann-Held  (P)
Søren Nors Nielsen   (T)

Robert J. O'Hara   (T, H)
Lars Folke Olsen   (T)

Domenico Parisi   (T)
Gordon Pask   (T)
Ray Paton   (T, P)
Howard H. Pattee   (T, P) [ & ]
Alan S. Perelson   (T)
Anya Plutynski   (P)

Pietro Ramellini   (T, P)
Willy Ranson   (T)
Thomas Reydon   (P)
Robert C. Richardson   (P)
Rupert Riedl   (T, P)
Alexander Riegler   (T, P)
Luis Rocha   (T, P)
Nils Roll-Hansen   (P, H)
Robert Rosen   (T, P) [& ], [ & ], [ & ]
Alex Rosenberg   (P)
Michael Ruse   (P, T)
Torsten Rüting  (H)

Stanley N. Salthe   (T, P)
Sahotra Sarkar   (T, P, H)
Isidro Savillo   (T)
Kenneth F. Schaffner   (P, H)
Tom Schneider   (T)
Thomas A. Sebeok   (P)
James A. Shapiro   (T)
Alexei A. Sharov   (P, T)
Robert A. Skipper, Jr.   (H, P)
Vassiliki Betty Smocovitis   (H)
Elliott Sober   (P)
Lien Van Speybroeck    (P)
Thomas Söderqvist    (H)
Peter F. Stadler (T)
Gunther Stent   (T)
Achim Stephan    (P)
Kim Sterelny   (P, H)
John Stewart   (P) [& ]
Karola Stotz   (P, T)
Roger Strand   (H, P)

Edwina Taborsky   (T, P)
Paul Thompson   (P)

Jakob von Uexküll   (T, P)
Robert E. Ulanowicz   (T, P)
Jon Umerez   (T, P)

Francisco J. Varela    (T, P)
Gertrudis Van de Vijver    (P)
Elisabeth S. Vrba  (T)

Günter P. Wagner   (T) [& ]
Alfred Russell Wallace   (T)
C. Kenneth Waters   (P)
Bruce Weber   (T, P, H)
Marcel Weber   (P, H)
Michael Weingarten  (P, H)
Norbert Wiener   (T)
John S. Wilkins   (P)
William C. Wimsatt   (T, P)
Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther   (P, H)
Olaf Wolkenhauer  (T, P)
Gereon Wolters   (P, H)
Arno Wouters   (P)
John van Wyhe   (H)

Chris Young  (H, S)

Tom Ziemke  (T, P)

Research groups and institutes


  • ISHPSSB, The International Society for the History, Philosophy and Social Studies of Biology (or briefly, "Ishkabibble").
  • ESMTB, The European Society for Mathematical and Theoretical Biology.
  • SMB, The Society for Mathematical Biology.
  • WESS, The Washington Evolutionary Systems Society
  • The Italian Coordinamento Nazionale di Biologia Teorica (CNBT).


Other resources

Maintained by Claus Emmeche, email: click here.