Stanley N. Salthe: Evolutionary Biology (a textbook). New York, 1972; Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Stanley N. Salthe: Evolving Hierarchical Systems: Their Structure and Representation. New York, 1985; Columbia University Press.

Book Description:
This book summarizes most of the prior works on the scalar hierarchy system -- e.g., [ population [ organism [cell [ macromolecule]]]], with the interpretation [[smaller scale] larger scale]. The discussion focuses on issues in evolutionary biology and ecology, but goes beyond these into systems science in order to discuss the principles of this kind of hierarchy. There is a brief comparison with the specification hierarchy (here called a "hierarchy of generalization") in connection with Figure 16, worth mentioning because several persons have found that it reveals the difference between these two major hierarchical systems particularly well. Three major conclusions of this text were: (a) One needs to model minimally three scalar levels in order to capture the complexity involved here (extensional complexity) -- the "Basic Triadic System". (b) Dynamics at the different levels are screened off from each other because they proceed at order of magnitude different rates, and so informational relations between levels are nontransitive. (c) In this system new levels always emerge between two already existing levels.

Stanley N. Salthe: Development and Evolution: Complexity and Change in Biology. Cambridge, MA, 1993; MIT Press.

Booknews, Inc. , April 1, 1994

Salthe (biology, City U. of New York) furthers his investigation of evolutionary theory begun in Evolving Hierarchical Systems (1985). Negating many of the implicit philosophical mechanisms in the earlier work, he initiates a theory of biology from the perspective of development rather than of evolution, applies general systems theory to biological and social phenomena, and clears ground toward a non-Darwinian, postmodern biology. Annotation copyright Book News, Inc. Portland, Or.
May be ordered here (Amazon)

Gertrudis Van De Vijver, Stanley N. Salthe and Manuela Delpos (eds.): Evolutionary Systems: Biological and Epistemological Perspectives on Selection and Self-organization. Dordrecht, 1998; Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Book Description:
To understand how complex dynamic systems, living or non-living, linguistic or non-linguistic, come to be organized as systems, to understand how their inherent dynamic nature gives rise to organisations and forms that have found a balance between potentiality for change and evolution on the one hand, and requisite stability in a given environment on the other, is the main ambition of the study of evolutionary systems. The aim of the present volume is to elucidate the scientific and philosophical backgrounds that play a role in one of the major debates taking place in that field, namely that on the relation between selection and self-organization. The book represents a genuine interdisciplinary forum in which the major representatives of evolutionary systems take part. Audience: This volume will be interest to biologists, philosophers of science, systems scientists, mathematicians, physicists, sociologists of science. It is highly recommended to those interested in an interdisciplinary and complex approach to evolution, as well as to those interested in developing a genuinely historical viewpoint in the sciences.

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